8. Income taxes

EUR 1,000 2017 2016

Income taxes from business operations -4 -8
Taxes for previous accounting periods
Withholding taxes paid abroad -3,876 -3,783
Change in withholding tax accrual 153 4,278
Income taxes total -3,726 484

The company has not deducted research and development costs amounting to EUR 71,267 (76 971) thousand in its taxation. The amount can be deducted over an indefinite period with amounts that the company may freely decide. The company has no tax losses at the end of 2016 and 2017. Other deductible temporary differences amount to EUR 2,374 (2,322) thousand. No deferred tax assets have been recognised on these capitalisations because of the uncertainty about utilising them.